Synthesis And Properties of Low- And High-Molecular by Gennadii Efremovich Zaikov, Irina V. Savenkova, Klara

By Gennadii Efremovich Zaikov, Irina V. Savenkova, Klara Gumargalieva

The most target of this e-book is to explain the synthesis and homes of low and high-molecular compounds at the quantitative point. distinctive cognizance used to be given to composition fabrics according to polymers and dispersed wooden, the mechanism of HCL removing reactions through a four-centre transition nation in the course of PVC thermal destruction, swelling of the stuffed polymer compositions, constitution and homes of mixed structures in accordance with butadiene-nitrile and ternary ethylene-propylene elastomers, intensification mass move strategies in quick liquid-phase chemical reactions, the examples of hetero-nanophase kinetic description of photochemical reactions, the nanometric particle-like neighborhood buildings and their implications in polymer behaviour, fractal actual chemistry of polymer suggestions, amendment of polycyanurates by way of polyethers, polyesters and polyurethanes, hybrid and interpenetrating polymer networks. This assortment comprises articles dedicated to creation of polymers, polymeric combos, composite and crammed polymers, questions of increasing life of polymeric articles, biologically energetic ingredients, amendment of polymers and polymer-analogous changes, fractal actual chemistry of polymer options, the research of structural differences in polymers and a few different questions. Of unique recognition also are construction of natural components and security of our surroundings.

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Additional info for Synthesis And Properties of Low- And High-Molecular Compounds: Quantitative Level

Sample text

This review has covered numerous instances of specific compositions showing the expedience of utilizing dispersed wood to sort out various problems. It is expedient to consider the problem of creating wood-polymer composites in the context of a more comprehensive utilization of wood raw materials as well. Well, for example, provided an optimal variant of obtaining composites ensures ecological cleanliness of a material [163], the utilization of powder cellulose and a photosensitizer as fillers lends PE-composites the property of biodegradation [124].

The results of calculations made by RHF/6-31G(d) method allow receiving the following ratio of rate constants (normalized at 448 K) of dehydrochlorination reaction of lowmolecular analogues in macromolecules: chloroalkanes (kr ≈ 10-11 с-1), chloroalkenes (kβ ≈ 108 -1 с ) and chlorodienes (kp ≈ 10-7 с-1). This ratio differs slightly from the experimental data of dehydrochlorination of substances in gas phase. However the rate constants ratio of dehydrochlorination of these groups, estimated by various indirect methods, which have been reported on PVC thermal destruction, is equal to kr < kβ < kp (10-7 с-1 < 10-4 с-1 < 10-2 с-1) [15].

Yanborisov; Chemical Department; Bashkir State University; 32 Frunze STR. 450074 Ufa Russia; tel. ru V. M. Yanborisov, K. S. Minsker and S. S. Borisevich 28 dehydrochlorination of macromolecules [2]. The mechanism of these reactions can differ very much depending upon conditions. Ionic mechanism is most probably realized during PVC destruction in solutions; dehydrochlorination reactions take place in solid PVC degradation and run according to the concerted molecular or radical mechanism [2-5]. The following two cases must be distinguished: when heated above 200 oC the radicals are discovered experimentally [3] and dehydrochlorination reactions obviously run according to radical mechanism; when heated up to 180-190 oC they are likely to run according to concerted molecular mechanism.

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