Nationalism (Concepts in Social Thought) by Craig Calhoun

By Craig Calhoun

Nationalism is likely one of the so much urgent of worldwide difficulties. Drawing on examples from worldwide, Craig Calhoun considers nationalism's varied manifestations, its historical past, and its courting to imperialism and colonialism. He additionally demanding situations makes an attempt to "debunk" nationalism that fail to know why it nonetheless has such energy and centrality in glossy existence.

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This reaction of the monarchic parties was not accidental. The international recognition of the right of self-determination of national minorities after the Great War fuelled the emergence of more radical Catalanist opinions which pushed for full ‘home rule’. In 1919, the moderate Lliga also launched a campaign to gain political autonomy for Catalonia. Against home rule, the UMN proposed monarchism, corporatism and regionalism – the latter understood in the Maurist sense of local and regional regeneration of the whole of Spain.

These actions only radicalized popular anti-militarism, while contributing to the strengthening of a conservative military mentality. Moreover, after the Spanish military suffered a shocking defeat in Morocco, the so-called ‘Disaster of Annual’ Figure 1 Spanish colonial troops pose for the camera with the heads of Rifean rebels. The brutality of the war in the Spanish protectorate in Africa alienated the popular classes from the military. 33 It is hardly surprising that the day after the united demonstration of Catalan, Basque and Galician nationalists in Barcelona on 11 September 1923, the military press complained of the ‘separatist riffraff’ and demanded the strict enforcement of the laws of crimes against the fatherland.

By an official directive, the same artists were active in the provinces, where all sorts of ‘national’ fighters were commemorated, from the Celt-Iberian resistance against the Romans (Numancia, 1905), through the sixteenth-century imperial commander-in-chief El Gran Capitán (Córdoba, 1909), to the heroine of the ‘War of Independence’ Agustina de Aragón (Zaragoza, 1908). All of them were manifestations of the process of creating from above a historical national identity that was gaining momentum precisely after the loss of the last colonies.

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