By Robert C. Koons, Timothy Pickavance
Metaphysics: the basics offers readers with a scientific, finished introductory evaluation of contemporary analytic metaphysics.
• provides an available, updated and broad-ranging survey of 1 of the main dynamic and sometimes daunting sub- fields in modern philosophy
• Introduces readers to the seminal works of latest and ancient philosophers, together with Descartes, Leibniz, Russell, David Lewis, Alvin Plantinga, package effective, Peter van Inwagen, John Hawthorne and lots of others
• Explores key questions whereas selecting very important assumptions, axioms, and methodological principles
• Addresses issues in ontology, modality, causality, and universals; in addition to concerns surrounding fabric composition, patience, house, and time
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Extra resources for Metaphysics: The Fundamentals (Fundamentals of Philosophy)
Panning out, Deflationism faces some serious challenges. It might be, though, that there are other views that are more in keeping with the spirit of Classical Truthmaker Theory, but that are more plausible than Classical Truthmaker Theory and Deflationism. Non-Classical Truthmaker Theory 36 Truthmakers promises to be just such a view. We will presently turn our attention to one variety of non-Classical Truthmaker Theory, namely, Truth Supervenes on Being. 4 Truth Supervenes on Being We will start this section by unearthing an assumption of the foregoing discussion of truthmakers that deserves to be called into question.
Consider, for example, the proposition that snow is white. It’s not the overall state of the world that matters to the truth of this proposition; it is just the color of snow that matters. Here again, is Aristotle: [I]f there is a man, the statement whereby we say that there is a man is true, and reciprocally – since if the statement whereby we say that there is a man is true, there is a man. And whereas the true statement is in no way the cause of the actual thing’s existence, the actual thing does seem in some way the cause of the statement’s being true: it is because the actual thing exists or does not that the statement is called true or false.
Second, consider two possibilities that differ only with respect to whether or not Steggy exists. These possibilities would not differ with respect to the number of contingent things that exist, since the non-existence of Steggy, as we have seen, guarantees the existence of NoSteggy. Likewise, the existence of Steggy precludes the existence of a different contingent thing, NoSteggy. This means that one cannot thin out the world’s population of contingent beings, despite that this seems perfectly possible.