Gymnosperms. Structure evolution by Charles Joseph Chamberlain

By Charles Joseph Chamberlain

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Scott (lied on January 29, 1934. " In the Carboniferous, the Cycadofilicales reached their highest development and began to decline. While they were probably in the Upper Carboniferous, two great lines, still plastic, which later became prominent, began to differentiate from the plexus, while the ancestral lines became weaker and weaker and, finally, in the Triassic and early Jurassic, became extinct. One of the new lines is called the Bennettitales; the other, the Cycadales. The Bennettitales de- veloped rapidly, reached their greatest display in the Jurassic, and became extinct in the Upper Cretaceous; while the Cycadales, though not so prominent a feature of the vegetation, in various tropical What caused and subtropical still al- flourish regions.

I8 is within the hardened portion bundles. Another set is more numerous than those inner set, a fleshy layer, with the inner set of bundles, of of supplies the cupule. If the the cupule were closely applied to the ovule, as it probably was in the early stage of development, a longi- tudinal section would look like that of somewhat a cycad seed, with a vas- cular system on each side of the stony layer. A detail of the top of the ovule, with microspores in the pollen Fig. 17. Lyginopteris lomaxii: seed surrounded by a glandular cu- shown in fig.

15. Lyginopteris ovoides: of part of nucellus with pollen section chamber containing pollen grains and sperms; that is has progressed a long way in the evolution of the seed. The Mexican god of war, according to tradition, came into the nl, part of central core of nucellus; nw, wall of nucellus; p\ p^, p^, and p*, pollen sperm; a\ sperm cut across; of endospore; X155. t, tissue, e, grains; a, protrusion probably fungal; —After Margaret Benson. ^^ world, like Minerva, full armed, with a spear in his right hand, a shield in his left, and a crest of green plumes on his head.

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