By Emilie van Haute
The emergence of eco-friendly events all through Europe in the course of 80s marked the arriving of a brand new kind of political circulation. This e-book contains person case experiences and a comparative standpoint to compile overseas experts engaged within the research of eco-friendly events. It renews and expands our wisdom in regards to the eco-friendly social gathering kinfolk in Europe.
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Additional resources for Green Parties in Europe
Name and transnational federations The most straightforward strategy is to identify Green parties based on their name or their affiliation to a transnational federation of parties. As noted by Mair and Mudde (1998), this strategy presents the advantages of being easy to apply and of respecting the parties’ own choices. However, they point at some difficulties linked to this approach: not all parties are affiliated to a transnational grouping (especially in the case of smaller or more marginal parties); party labels may cover very diverse ideological currents, and parties identifying with an ideology may choose to avoid referring to it in their name.
Since then, they have continuously been represented in parliament. Since 2001, they have also been present in the – largely irrelevant – second chamber (Bundesrat). Shortly after the 1986 election, a new party was founded: the Grüne Alternative (GA). It successfully absorbed the ALÖ (Haerpfer, 1989). However, the heterogeneity of the Green movement immediately led to struggles in the parliamentary party and to a rival candidacy by the VGÖ in 1990, which again split the Green vote. Subsequently, the VGÖ moved ever more to the right and became insignificant.
In doing so, the book can also be considered a unique discussion on the notion of the party family in Europe. , 1990. Identity, Competition, and Electoral Availability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2001. Evolving or conforming? Assessing organisational reform within European Green parties. West European Politics, 24(3), pp. 113–134. , and Beck, P. eds, 1984. Electoral Change in Advanced Democracies. Princeton: Princeton University Press. , 2004. Les clivages politiques en Europe centrale et orientale.