Good thinking : seven powerful ideas that influence the way by Denise D. Cummins

By Denise D. Cummins

After analyzing this publication, you'll be wiser in methods: you are going to know the way the easiest and brightest thinkers pass judgement on the methods we make a decision, argue, remedy difficulties, and inform correct from fallacious. yet you'll additionally comprehend why, once we do not meet those criteria, it isn't consistently a nasty factor. The solutions are rooted within the manner the human mind has been stressed out to make us kinder and extra beneficiant than economists imagine we needs to be, yet extra immune to switch and persuasion than scientists and students imagine we must always be

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S. Preventive Services Task Force issued new guidelines in 2009 recommending that screening should begin at age 50 rather than 40 and that women should have mammograms every two years rather than every year. This was not a popular recommendation, and outraged women and their doctors protested. The primary difficulty seems to be convincing people that a positive mammogram is not sure evidence of cancer. ) In 2008, the guidelines regarding prostate cancer screening also changed. The most prevalent test used is called the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test.

Trivers showed that selection will discriminate against cheaters if cheating later adversely affects the cheater’s life to an extent that outweighs the benefit of not reciprocating. When will this happen? When a cooperator responds to cheating by excluding cheaters from future transactions. Under these conditions, reciprocal altruism is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). The concept of an ESS was introduced by John Maynard Smith in 1972. A strategy is called 28 g o o d t hink ing evolutionarily stable if a population of individuals playing this strategy is able to outperform and eliminate a small subpopulation playing a different strategy.

After all, even one penny is better than no money at all, and both parties know that. But that’s not what people do. Average offers in Ultimatum are a good deal higher than in Dictator – between 30% and 50% (Camerer, 2003). Offers less than 20% are typically rejected, meaning that people would rather no one get any money than accept an offer they believe to be too low. Again, people seem to approach these games with a norm of self-interest and a norm of fairness (Eckel & Grossman, 1995; Rabin, 1993).

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