By Anatoly T. Fomenko, Vladimir V. Kalashnikov, Gleb V. Nosovsky

**Read or Download Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations Dating Ptolemy's Almagest PDF**

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Newton: "The distribution of the fractions by itself cannot tell us the integer part of the amount that Ptolemy added to the original longitudes" (Ref. 1, p. 253). Besides this trivial operation of shifting all longitudes by an unknown number of grades, R. Newton finds the traces of a more delicate recalculation of the longitudes (Ref. 1, pp. 246-250). Thus, somebody had done a significant change of the originally observed longitudes of stars, 6. RELIABILITY OF LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES 49 so the set of longitudes now at our disposal is not the result of observations, but of a processing (possibly, fairly complicated) of observational data.

9. Refraction of a light beam in the atmosphere where B is the atmospheric pressure (in millimeters of mercury column, adjusted to 0° C), and t° is the temperature of air (in Celsius degrees). It is obvious from this formula that tan is the main factor influencing the refrac- tion. , for stars with large altitudes), tan is small, so refraction is marginal. The closer a star to the horizon, the greater is tan , and consequently the more are the distortions of stars' positions caused by refraction.

Quadrant. 13. Astrolabe. 25 longitudes of stars. We should recall, however, that the diurnal rotation of the earth upsets alignment of the armilla, so either the measurements are to be carried out as fast as possible, or we have to use a clockwork able to compensate for the rotation and automatically reset the instrument (the latter idea is used in modern observational instruments). To facilitate measuring ecliptic coordinates, one more ring (the third) is added to the armilla, which can rotate about an axis sliding along the ring R1 El R2 E2.