Genesis of the Hymenoptera and the phases of their evolution by S. I. Malyshev (auth.), Professor O. W. Richards M.A.,

By S. I. Malyshev (auth.), Professor O. W. Richards M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., Sir Boris Uvarov K.C.M.G., D.Sc., F.R.S. (eds.)

The overdue Professor S. I. Malyshev, who died from a cerebral haemorrhage on nine could 1967 on the age of eighty three within the educate whereas traveling to box paintings, was once one of many premiere eu scholars of the Hymenoptera, particularly of the behavior of solitary bees, a subject matter on which he had released many papers on the grounds that 1908, often in Russian. In 1935 he released a huge paper on a part of his paintings, and that i helped to edit the ebook, which used to be in English. many years in the past a few of my buddies in California requested me if i couldn't convince him to accomplish his early paper on solitary bees, delivering if essential to organize for a translation. while I wrote to Professor Malyshev making this recommendation he not had the health and wellbeing to provide a brand new paintings, yet he despatched me a replica of his contemporary publication at the evolution of the Hymenoptera which he notion could be worthy trans­ lating. Sir Boris Uvarov used to be more than enough to translate for me the bankruptcy and part headings, and it looked as if it would either one of us lot of recent flooring was once coated in a hugely unique means. the reason of the adjustments in behaviour that should have taken position whilst the straightforward, plant-feeding observed­ flies built into hugely really expert parasites or into industrious, nutrients­ amassing, social bugs resembling the ants, bees, and wasps can good be considered as one of many significant demanding situations to zoologists.

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This was achieved because the female sawfly, when laying the egg, began to secrete a special fluid into the tissue of the leaf or shoot, containing an enzyme causing the rapid proliferation of the plant cells and the formation of a special growth, a gall, inside which the sawfly larva GENESIS OF THE TEREBRANTIA 35 emerging from the egg lived and fed. It is known that the enzyme secreted by the insect converts the starch of the plant cells into a sugar, thus performing the same function as the plant enzyme.

L This information corresponds to the interesting old observations of Giraud and Cameron, that the genus Pimpla includes species which may live in galls and feed on their tissue or juices (Sharp, 1902). Interesting cases of inquilinism are found also among the Chalcids of the primitive family Eurytomidae. According to the observations of IvanovaKazas, for instance, the larva of Eurytoma aciculata Ratz. , after which it begins to feed on the walls of the Pontania gall. In this case death of the sawfly egg or larva is not caused by the active intervention of the Eurytoma larva, but is said to occur at the moment when the female Eurytoma lays its egg (Ivanova-Kazas, 1958).

GENESIS OF THE HYMENOPTERA at first for oviposition in the tissue of plants, but later for other acts as we1l,1 Another, perhaps equally important, condition was the appearanc~ in some endophytic sawflies of the ability to inject a special secretion of their accessory sex glands into the green tissues of plants, causing the formation of pathological tumours or galls, rich in food substances. The primary Terebrantia undoubtedly could not have differed sharply from their primitive phytophagous ancestors in their feeding habits at the larval stage.

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