General System Theory: Foundations, Development, by Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Wolfgang Hofkirchner, David Rousseau

By Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Wolfgang Hofkirchner, David Rousseau

The vintage ebook on an important smooth theory

Bertalanffy’s chosen writings on his thought of legislation appropriate to nearly each medical box. This conceptual procedure has had a profound impression on biology, economics, psychology, and demography, with new relevancies this day. the hot foreword by collage of Vienna approach idea professor, Wolfgang Hofkirchner, and Centre for platforms Philosophy director, David Rousseau, discusses the theory’s modern purposes.

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Just like those individual objects, those thoughts are real, but are not independent – they depend on the mind for their existence. We can now see the whole story of the nature of human beings in Descartes’ philosophy. It is the view which is usually referred to as ‘Cartesian Dualism’ because of the way he represents us as a combination of two elements, but in fact as a complete metaphysical account of what there is it is really a kind of unequal trilogy of existants. The basic reality of all being is God, the one true substance, which creates and recreates at every moment two distinct types of dependent substances or pseudo-substances.

In Chapter 5 we will look at the question of whether we have any good reason to believe there is such a thing as God at all. 26 THE POSSIBILITY OF ATHEISM: DESCARTES AND GOD God the clock-maker According to the first picture, the God of Descartes is quite familiar. He is omnipotent, omniscient, eternal, and all-good. e. in Cartesian terms he created the original soup of inert matter, set up the first chaos of disordered motion, and laid down the three laws by means of which that soup would in time – as he of course foresaw – come to develop into the world as we know it.

Descartes says this is not so. e. not a simple matter of object A’s moving from one place to another, but a very complex exchange of positions by large numbers of distinguishable areas of the continuum. After all, it is not in fact true that the balls in the triangle can’t move until you take one out: if only you could push them hard enough without destroying the triangle they would move – the balls would break up, and the resulting dust and lumps would push through the gaps between the remaining balls, displacing the air that was there before; and if the snooker triangle were a closed system like the physical universe, the air molecules would themselves move round to fill the space created by the original collapsing ball to complete a ‘circle’ of relative positional changes.

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