By Kouki Hikosaka, Yusuke Onoda, Toshihiko Kinugasa, Hisae Nagashima, Niels P. R. Anten (auth.), Dr. Takashi Kohyama, Dr. Josep Canadell, Dr. Dennis S. Ojima, Dr. Louis F. Pitelka (eds.)
Coastal East and Southeast Asia are characterised by means of rainy transforming into seasons, and species-rich woodland ecosystems improve through the latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. during this zone, the worldwide swap affects on Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia (TEMA) venture used to be performed as a distinct contribution to the foreign venture worldwide swap and Terrestrial Ecosystems. TEMA aimed to combine wooded area atmosphere methods, from leaf body structure to meteorological funds and prediction of long term switch of crops composition and structure via demographic strategies. particular realization used to be given to watershed approaches, the place woodland atmosphere metabolism impacts the homes and biogeochemical budgets of freshwater ecosystems, and the place rivers, wetlands, and lakes are topic to direct and oblique results of environmental swap. This quantity offers the scaling-up inspiration for higher knowing of atmosphere functioning.
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Additional resources for Forest Ecosystems and Environments: Scaling Up from Shoot Module to Watershed
Stand dynamics during 1995–1999 were analysed by Aiba and Kitayama (2002). In this paper, we study variation in stand dynamics (turnover rates as well as growth rates) among the nine plots over 8 years (1995–2003), and examine the relationship with productivity. On Mount Kinabalu, a severe drought occurred in 1997–1998 in association with the El Nin˜o–Southern Oscillation event, and growth rates and mortality were signiﬁcantly aﬀected by the drought (Aiba and Kitayama 2002). It is necessary to consider the impact of the drought in order to study stand dynamics (Sheil 1995; Phillips 1995).
Can J For Res 26:289–297 Hiura T, Fujito E, Ishii T, Naniwa A, Sugata S, Ishida K, Murakami M, Kato E, Maeno H, Fukushima Y, Sakai T (1998) Stand structure of a deciduous broad-leaved forest in Tomakomai Experimental Forest, based on a large-plot data. Res Bull Exp For Hokkaido Univ 55:1–10 House JI, Prentice IC, Ramankutty N, Houghton RA, Heimann M (2003) Reconciling apparent inconsistencies in estimates of terrestrial CO2 sources and sinks. Tellus B Chem Phys Meteorol 55:345–363 Hozumi K, Shinozaki K, Tadaki Y (1968) Studies on the frequency distribution of the weight of individual trees in a forest stand I.
Tarumae erupted in 1669 and 1739, and has very shallow soil (Igarashi 1987; Sakuma and Sato 1987). About 100 tree species and 300 herbaceous species were recorded in TOEF in 1916 (Kudo and Yoshimi 1916). , Sorbus alnifolia (Sieb. ) C. ) Simonkai (Hiura et al. 1998; Hiura 2001). Half the area of TOEF was disturbed by a catastrophic typhoon in 1954 (Mishima et al. 1958; Osawa 1992). A part of the disturbed area was replanted with Larix leptolepsis (Sieb. ) Gordon, Abies sachalinensis (Fr. ) Masters, or Picea glehnii (Fr.