By Frank C. Keil, Robert A. Wilson
Motives appear to be a wide and typical a part of our cognitive lives. As Frank Keil and Robert Wilson write, "When a cognitive task is so ubiquitous that it truly is expressed either in a preschooler's idle questions and in paintings that's the end result of many years of scholarly attempt, one has to invite even if we actually have one and an identical phenomenon or simply various cognitively established phenomena which are loosely, or maybe metaphorically, related."This ebook is uncommon in its interdisciplinary method of that ubiquitous task. The essays handle 5 simple questions about rationalization: How do explanatory capacities increase? Are there different types of clarification? Do reasons correspond to domain names of data? Why will we search causes, and what do they accomplish? How primary are explanations to clarification? The essays draw on paintings within the heritage and philosophy of technological know-how, the philosophy of brain and language, the advance of techniques in teenagers, conceptual switch in adults, and reasoning in human and synthetic platforms. in addition they introduce rising views on rationalization from machine technology, linguistics, and anthropology.Contributors : Woo-kyoung Ahn, William F. Brewer, Patricia W. Cheng, Clark A. Chinn, Andy Clark, Robert Cummins, Clark Glymour, Alison Gopnik, Christine Johnson, Charles W. Kalish, Frank C. Keil, Robert N. McCauley, Gregory L. Murphy, Ala Samarapungavan, Herbert A. Simon, Paul Thagard, Robert A. Wilson.
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Additional info for Explanation and Cognition (Bradford Books)
42 Simon Conversion of such theories into computer programs increases their precision and allows many more empirically testable quantitative and qualitative predictions to be made. Simulation of Theory-Driven Search We return now to the search for theories, in this case to search that is driven by preexisting theoretical postulates instead of by data. Once we have a theory at hand, especially a rather powerful one like Newton’s laws, we may proceed to seek explanations for known phenomena by deductive processes (this is what Thomas Kuhn called “normal science”), or we may make deductions from the theory in order to predict new phenomena, thereby providing tests for the validity of the theory.
Putting these observations together, he now had a very concrete model, employing the theoretical (but indirectly visible) lines of magnetic force to serve as a mechanism that explained how a magnet could create a continuous electric current. These are just two episodes in a much larger story, but they are wholly consistent with the remaining episodes. Noticing phenomena led Faraday to intense efforts to provide a model for interpreting them. The models he created, whether they turned out to be mainly correct or illusory, provided a basis for the design and execution of new experiments.
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that this “layering” of cognitive science is not just a matter of comfort in specialization but reﬂects the structure and layering of the phenomena themselves and the mechanisms that produce them. Moreover, it leads to a far simpler and more parsimonious body of theory. We can see a striking example of this parsimony in the layering of modern genetic theory from population genetics at the most aggregate level, through classical Mendelian genetics at the level of the species and its members, to the genetics of chromosomes as the bearers of genes, and then to molecular genetics and its detailed chemical explanation of the more aggregated laws.