Electrical Properties of Polymers by Donald A. Seanor (Eds.)

By Donald A. Seanor (Eds.)

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Sample text

This figure indicates a uniform crystallite s u r r o u n d e d by a m o r p h o u s regions. This crystallite contains some defects b u t , by and large, has a regular array of a t o m s . T h e r e are interfacial states at the c r y s t a l l i n e - a m o r p h o u s b o u n d a r y . Within the a m o r p h o u s region, the localized states a r e of neither uniform depth nor distribution (Seanor, 1967). The localized states may act in trapping carriers from the extended states of the crystalline region.

It is not known whether the mobility shoulder is real or not. neutral donor state or an ionized a c c e p t o r state will t r a p holes. A trapped charge can also act as a recombination center. Lattice polarization a r o u n d a charge in a localized state can lead to an increase time in depth trap and tend to m a k e transport more difficult (polarons). In the a m o r p h o u s region, the density fluctuations will create localized states and possibly a mobility band as described by Mott (1967, 1969) and by Mott and Davies (1971).

If such a mechanism existed, t h e waiting time b e t w e e n hops would be d o m i n a t e d by molecular motions, since the charge carrier would await the condition of m a x i m u m hopping probability before moving. T h e rate-limiting step would be controlled by local fluctuations and would be reflected in the o b s e r v e d activation energy of mobility. Certainly the acti­ vation energy of conduction is high, and frequently changes in the activa­ tion energy of conduction are correlated with the onset of a n e w molecular relaxation p r o c e s s .

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