By Patrik Nosil
The foundation of organic range, through the formation of recent species, will be inextricably associated with version to the ecological surroundings. in particular, ecological procedures are vital to the formation of recent species whilst obstacles to gene move (reproductive isolation) evolve among populations due to ecologically-based divergent normal choice. This strategy of 'ecological speciation' has visible a wide physique of fairly concentrated examine within the final 10-15 years, and a evaluation and synthesis of the theoretical and empirical literature is now timely.
The publication starts by way of clarifying what ecological speciation is, its possible choices, and the predictions that may be used to check for it. It then experiences the 3 parts of ecological speciation and discusses the geography and genomic foundation of the method. a last bankruptcy highlights destiny study instructions, describing the ways and experiments that may be used to behavior that destiny paintings. The ecological and genetic literature is built-in during the textual content with the aim of laying off new perception into the speciation strategy, fairly whilst the empirical facts is then additional built-in with concept.
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Extra resources for Ecological Speciation
In only one case have both criteria been met by manipulative experiments. For mimetic wing color patterns in tropical Heliconius butterﬂies, Jiggins et al. (2001) showed that individuals prefer to mate with live individuals and paper models of the same color pattern (Fig. 7). Thus, divergence in color pattern generates sexual isolation. Furthermore, both mark–recapture experiments (Mallet and Barton 1989) and manipulative experiments with paper models (R. 5. Examples of putative “magic traits,” restricted to those putatively affecting sexual or pollinator isolation.
Limitations and caveats for testing parallel speciation. Populations in different environments (ecotypes hereafter) are depicted by gray versus black circles. The ancestral population that gave rise to these populations in different environments is depicted as an unﬁlled rectangle. , the origins of new populations). Double-headed, dashed arrows represent gene ﬂow between ecologically divergent forms. a) If there is a true single origin of each ecotype, a test for parallel speciation cannot be conducted.
The agents of divergent selection during ecological speciation are extrinsic and can include abiotic and biotic factors such as food resources, climate, habitat, and interspecies interactions such as disease, competition, and behavioral interference. The agents of selection during mutation-order speciation might often be “intrinsic,” for example, having to do with the internal genetic environment. Interactions occurring between the sexes or among genetic elements might be considered “ecological” by some, but they are not necessarily divergent between external environments, and thus, are distinct from the factors driving ecological speciation.