By Jean Clobert, Michel Baguette, Tim G. Benton, James M. Bullock
Now that such a lot of ecosystems face quick and significant environmental switch, the facility of species to answer those adjustments by way of dispersing or relocating among varied patches of habitat might be an important to making sure their survival. realizing dispersal has turn into key to figuring out how populations may possibly persist.
Dispersal Ecology and Evolution provides a well timed and wide-ranging evaluation of the short increasing box of dispersal ecology, incorporating the very most modern learn. The explanations, mechanisms, and results of dispersal on the person, inhabitants, species, and group degrees are thought of. views and insights are provided from the fields of evolution, behavioural ecology, conservation biology, and genetics. in the course of the ebook theoretical ways are mixed with empirical facts, and care has been taken to incorporate examples from as huge a number species as attainable - either plant and animal.
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Extra info for Dispersal Ecology and Evolution
First of all dispersal is—like many life-history traits—only expressed through an often complex interaction of the organism with its environment, therefore dispersal is likely to be driven by a combination of individual characteristics and environmental effects (Lambin et al. 2001; Bowler and Benton 2005; Benard and McCauley 2008). Given the heterogeneity and complexity of dispersal mechanisms, and the variety of proximal factors involved, different aspects of the environment are likely to act together in altering the costs and beneﬁts of movement.
2007). Effects of landscape characteristics on emigration and immigration may also differ. For example, ‘hard’ boundaries with strong contrasts between habitat and matrix are likely to reduce emigration, while they may actually increase immigration rates due to improved detectability for dispersers (Englund and Hamback 2007). Landscape effects on dispersal will be further discussed in Chapter 30. In passive dispersers as well, landscape structure can have an important effect by altering the 12 D IS P E R S A L E C O L O G Y A N D E VO L U T I O N abiotic and biotic conditions that affect movement (the ‘extended landscape’, see Chapter 5).
Nevertheless, since any process changing an organism’s location may eventually contribute to its dispersal, the factors that explain variation in dispersal are inevitably extremely varied and heterogeneous. Thus, similar dispersal patterns may derive from very different mechanisms and causes, while seemingly different outcomes may be due to the same causal factor (Massot et al. 2002). Theories explaining the evolution and consequences of dispersal will have to take these widely divergent causal factors into account, yet the majority of existing models still treat dispersal as a simple process characterized by a single rate or kernel.