Colloidal Surfactants. Some Physicochemical Properties by Kozo Shinoda

By Kozo Shinoda

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It is always safe to say that addition of one méthylène group lowers the CMC about one-third of the initial value. 10 illustrates this relation. 2 kT) derived by Langmuir (216) as the heat of adsorption of a méthylène group in water. 2 kT on the basis of the adsorption data of Powney and Addison (63) at the water-xylene interface. 02 kT from the data on sodium dodecyl sulfate at 25°C. A reasonably high electrical potential on the micelle surface can be inferred from the marked decrease in CMC with added salts (and the high surface potential of ionized monolayers).

8) As the activity of the surface active agent is almost constant above 28 KOZO SHINODA the CMC and the change in concentration of the micelle is difficult to determine, a concentrated solution is a better standard state to choose. If we choose such a concentrated solution as a standard, the activities of singly dispersed agent and micellar agent are both unity at the chosen concentration. The activity coefficient of surface active agent in the micellar state, which resembles the pure liquid state of the agent, is unity and that of the singly dispersed molecule is approximately 1/CMC (CMC in mole fraction units).

36) The electrical potential would be given by . Φ kTL ln 2000TH;2 , η ° = — \ -DNkT--lnCi\ \ η 07λ ( 0 7 ) where d is the total concentration of gegenions in equivalents of effective ion per liter. The integral work of introducing another charge e into the surface of the micelle is given by βφ. A reasonable alternative is to assume that each ion, instead of contributing a charge e to the micelle, would contribute less than this because of the gegenion which accompanies the introduction of another charge (197).

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