City planning for health and sustainable development by Europian sustainable cities campaign, Europian commission,

By Europian sustainable cities campaign, Europian commission, WHO regional office for europe, Healthy cities network

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Extra resources for City planning for health and sustainable development

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The United Kingdom Local Government Management Board identifies six key features of the local Agenda 21 process in the United Kingdom divided into action in the 49 Fig. 9. Steps in the local Agenda 21 process 1 35 2 46 Action in the wider community Managing and improving the local authorities’ own environmental performance • Support for environmental education • Awareness-raising events • Visits and talks • Support for voluntary groups • Publication of local information • Press releases • Initiatives to encourage behaviour change and practical action • Corporate commitments • Staff training and awareness-raising • Environmental management systems • Environmental budgeting • Policy integration across sectors Integrating sustainable development aims into the local authorities policies and activities Consulting and involving the general public • Public consultation processes • Fora • Focus groups • “Planning for real” • Parish maps • Feedback mechanisms Partnerships • Meetings, workshops and conferences • Working groups/ advisory groups • Roundtables • Environment city model • Partnership initiatives • Developing-world partnerships and support Measuring, monitoring and reporting on progress towards sustainability • Environmental monitoring • Local state of the environment reports • Sustainability indicators • Targets • Environmental impact assessment • Strategic environmental assessment ▼ • Green housekeeping • Land-use planning • Transport policies and programmes • Economic development • Tendering and purchaser-provider splits • Housing services • Tourism and visitor strategies • Health strategies • Welfare, equal opportunities and poverty strategies • Explicitly environmental strategies ▼ Awareness-raising and education Action within the local authority Source: adapted from Local Agenda 21: principles and process.

In many cases governments have become a collection of vertical solitudes with walls, narrow mandates and incentives to pass the buck. It has created a multiplicity of programmes at the community level that rarely work in a collaborative fashion. Hancock (31) describes this as nineteenth-century governance: the Fig. 10. Twenty-first-century problems and nineteenth-century structures Parks Traffic Public health Planning Environmental health ▼ ▼ ▼▼ ▼ ▼ Public works Healthy city Sustainability Equity Mobility Energy Food Twenty-firstcentury problems Nineteenth-century structures Source: adapted from Hancock (31) 58 City planning for health and sustainable development which the benefits to the workers and communities are clear.

This can be time-consuming and difficult, as there are no quick technical fixes. It may also involve new ways of working for bureaucracies and communities. Some challenges may be common to all countries and others specific to each country. This section highlights: • the nature and value of city health plans; • the likely challenges; • the processes and structures of support that provide the foundation for a city health plan and therefore make it viable; and • the steps needed to produce a city health plan.

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