Ciba Foundation Symposium - Hearing Mechanisms in by A.V.S.& Knight, J.(eds.) De Reuck

By A.V.S.& Knight, J.(eds.) De Reuck

Chapter 1 Chairman's advent (page 1): Professor O. Lowenstein
Chapter 2 listening to in Fish (pages 3–17): in line with S. Enger
Chapter three Evolution of the Auditory engaging in equipment in Terrestrial Vertebrates (pages 18–40): A. Tumarkin
Chapter four constitution and serve as of the Ear and of the Auditory mind components in Birds (pages 41–63): J. Schwartzkopff
Chapter five listening to in Bats (pages 65–88): J. D. Pye
Chapter 6 Ultrastructure and Peripheral Innervation development of the Receptor in terms of the 1st Coding of the Acoustic Message (pages 89–125): H. Spoendlin
Chapter 7 Cochlear constitution and listening to in guy (pages 126–142): Goran Bredberg
Chapter eight styles of task in unmarried Auditory Nerve Fibres of the Squirrel Monkey (pages 143–168): J. E. Rose, J. F. Brugge, D. J. Anderson and J. E. Hind
Chapter nine Efferent Inhibition within the Cochlea by way of the Olivocochlear package (pages 169–186): Jorgen Fex
Chapter 10 Orientation via Sound in Fishes (pages 187–206): H. Kleerekoper and T. Malar
Chapter eleven Localization and Lateralization of Sound in house (pages 207–233): William D. Neff
Chapter 12 function of the Pinna in Localization: Theoretical and Physiological results (pages 234–243): Dwight W. Batteau
Chapter thirteen Centrifugal keep watch over Mechanisms of the Auditory Pathway (pages 245–258): I. C. Whitfield
Chapter 14 Auditory Responses Evoked within the Human Cortex (pages 259–271): Hallowell Davis
Chapter 15 Cortical illustration (pages 272–295): E. F. Evans
Chapter sixteen ultimate dialogue (pages 296–309):
Chapter 17 Chairman's ultimate comments (page 310): Professor O. Lowenstein

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Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the cochlea and lagena of the bird aftcr Schwartzkopff and Winter (1960). Abbreviations: Fr Fenestra rotunda C Cartilage Fsve Fossa scalae vestibuli Co Columella K w Bony wall Csty Cavum scalae tympani La Lagena Csve Cisterna scalae vestibuli M b Membrana basilaris Db Ductus brevis Rsty Recessus scalae tympani Ilc Ductus cochlearis I h t y Ductus scalae tympani Sty Scala tympani Tv Tegmentum vasculosum ]>re Ductus reuniens bone-conducted vibrations, since they protrude rather freely into the airfilled cavities of the avian skull (SchwartzkopfF,1949; 1955).

It ultimately did so in the mammal aiid became the malleus. A. this transaction. It takes no great stretch of imagination to envisage the articular and quadrate torn, so to speak, between the conflicting demands of the masticatory and the auditory functions-the former calling for massive, stable muscle-clad bones, the latter for delicate airborne mobile ossicles. If this dilemma of Solomon really existed it follows that the mammals owe their very existence to some unknown therapsid that hit on the inspired compromise of placating the masticatory function with a brand new joint in order to dedicate thc bones of contention to the overriding needs of air sensitive hearing.

44 J. SCHWAHTZKOPFF I do not know of any direct investigations of thc differentiation of intensity steps and thc temporal resolution of acoustic signals. Both abilities arc likely to be linked coinpleiiientarily with frequency analysis. Mcrit for repeatedly pointing out this gap is due to Profcssor Pumphrey. He has studied (1961) song records published by Thorpe in which chaffinches reproduce heard tunes by imitation. Pumphrcy has calculated from the accuracy of the reproduction that temporal resolution in birds must be ten times better than in man.

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