Chemistry for Technologists by G. R. Palin and N. Hiller (Auth.)

By G. R. Palin and N. Hiller (Auth.)

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36 CHEMISTRY FOR TECHNOLOGISTS Rearrangement of the orbitals of an atom in this way prior to bond formation is known as hybridization, a n d the new orbitals are known as hybrid orbitals. Atoms are never found unbonded in the hybridized state, nor is it possible t o detect this state. The concept of hybridization is merely a convenient mathematical approximation which also gives a 3 useful physical picture of the final bonded state. The sp hybridization involves two electrons in an s orbital and two in 3 a n d occurs in a number of elements, a m o n g them sili-2 separate ρ orbitals, con and tin.

Reaction 1 in Fig. 22 involves a decrease in the chemical energy, while reaction 2 involves an increase. The first law of thermodynamics states that when energy of one kind disappears, an equivalent amount of energy of another kind appears. When a chemical reaction occurs, there is a change in the chemical energy of the system. If the chemical energy is reduced, energy of another kind must appear, and if the chemical energy is increased, energy of another kind must disappear. Thermal energy is the most common kind produced or used u p in a chemical reaction, but mechanical and electrical energy can also be involved.

9 2 kcal The overall reaction can be considered as occurring in two hypothetica steps: 6 H 20 2( 1 ) • 3 0 2( g ) + 6 H 20 ( g ) AH298 = 3 χ - 2 5 . 9 2 = - 7 7 . 7 6 k c a l followed by C 2H 5O H ( l ) + 3 0 2( g ) • 2 C 0 2( g ) + 3 H 20 ( g ) AH298 = - 2 9 5 . 1 4 k c a l The overall change in heat content is the same as the sum of the changes in the two hypothetical stages. AH298 = - 7 7 . 14 = - 3 7 2 . 9 kcal Thermochemical equations can be added and subtracted, a n d multiplied and divided throughout, in the same way as algebraic equations.

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