Cell Polarity and Subcellular RNA Localization by Oswald Steward, Paul Worley (auth.), Professor Dr. Dietmar

By Oswald Steward, Paul Worley (auth.), Professor Dr. Dietmar Richter (eds.)

Selective cytoplasmic organelle and protein focusing on has lengthy been proposal to represent the only real determinant of telephone polarity and complexity. This view has been replaced, despite the fact that, via the invention of differential subcellular RNA distribution styles. during the last decade it has develop into transparent that selective mRNA sorting and translation contributes to an accumulation of cognate proteins at discrete mobile websites. during this ebook, a number of platforms are mentioned (e.g. Xenopus oocytes, mammalian mind, invertebrate frightened method) by way of RNA trafficking, RNA-targeting sequences (cis-elements) and RNA-transporting proteins (trans-factors), activity-dependent translational law and the importance of the cytoskeleton for neuronal functionality and plasticity. It additionally discusses nucleocytoplasmic export of mRNA and viral RNA as one other instance of subcellular RNA kinesis.

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Provided the creation of these tags is independent of protein synthesis, there is no reason why tags set in the presence of drugs that inhibit protein synthesis should not 'hijack' PPs synthesized earlier, and so stabilize any early LTP-induced after protein synthesis has been shut down. Paradoxically, the synaptic tag mechanism for realizing input specificity allows for the possibility that protein synthesis-dependent LTP can be induced during the inhibition of protein synthesis. Summarizing our findings (Frey and Morris 1997, 1998a, b), we can conclude that input specificity and temporal persistence of LTP must be determined somewhat separately.

3 Studies in Synaptoneurosomes Other evidence indicating synaptic regulation of translation within dendrites comes from studies that use synaptoneurosome preparations (a subcellular fraction containing terminals and dendrites isolated by filtration techniques). Both depolarization and neurotransmitter activation lead to an increase in the proportion of mRNA associated with polysomes, and in the levels of protein synthesis within cell fragments in the preparation (Weiler and Greenough 1991,1993).

These results thus provided evidence of regulation of CAMKII mRNA translation via NMDA receptor activation. Other recent studies have revealed another novel mechanism for the control of the translation of CAMKII mRNA at synapses (Wu et al. 1998). An unusual feature of CAMKII mRNA is that it contains a sequence in it's 3' untranslated region (UTR) that is a consensus sequence for the binding of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE). CPEs are known to playa key role in regulating the translation of maternal mRNAs in oocytes.

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