Battle of St. Vith: a concept in defensive tactics by Clarke, Bruce C

By Clarke, Bruce C

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Prestrain can also be used to achieve preferential actuation in a certain direction by applying high prestrain in the direction perpendicular to the desired actuation direction and low prestrain along the actuation direction [143]. The effects of prestrain on the actuation performance of dielectric elastomers have been widely studied from both a practical as well as theoretical perspective [143, 165, 168–182]; however, the mechanism by which prestrain increases dielectric strength is still not completely understood.

The addition of TiO2 had the effect of decreasing the modulus, increasing the dielectric constant, and increasing the strain and elastic energy density up to an optimal value, after which the values were seen to decrease. 62%. 04% was reported for a DOP loading of 80 phr and a TiO2 loading of 30 phr. 5 kJ m-3 respectively. The values, albeit lower than the peak performance of most conventional DE materials, were achieved at relatively low electric fields (20 MV m-1 or lower). 5 Compliant Electrode Materials Identifying or developing a suitable compliant electrode is also a key factor in achieving good DE performance.

Because of the ability to tune the composition by varying the copolymer molecular weight and the weight fraction of the polymer and oil, materials can be fabricated with tensile moduli ranging from 2 to 163 kPa with actuation strains being the highest for the low modulus variety and decreasing to 30% in area (22% thickness) at the high modulus range. Coupling efficiencies achieved were as high as 92% for low polymer loadings and lower molecular weight (161 kg mol-1) and reduced to approximately 40% at high polymer loadings and higher molecular weight (217 kg mol-1).

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