By Hans Peter Dietz MD, PhD, FRANZCOG DDU, CU, Lennox P. J. Hoyte MD, MSEECS, FACOG, Anneke B. Steensma MD (auth.)
Ultrasound has changed X-ray because the major imaging modality for the prognosis of pelvic flooring issues within the girl. most up-to-date advancements - quantity distinction, speckle aid and multi-slice imaging - have markedly more suitable spatial solution and straightforwardness of use, with the outcome that ultrasound now allows competitively priced and non-invasive demonstration of bladder neck and pelvic organ mobility, vaginal, urethral and levator ani functionality and anatomy, and anorectal anatomy.
Atlas of Pelvic ground Ultrasound offers an advent to pelvic flooring imaging, in addition to a source for use in the course of preliminary and extra complex perform.
This atlas is a useful source for gynecologists, urogynecologists, woman urologists, sonologists, radiologists, and physiotherapists.
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Additional info for Atlas of Pelvic Floor Ultrasound
Br J Urol 1992;70(1):12–16. 8. Rahmanou P, Chaliha C, Khullar V. Role of imaging in urogynaecology. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2004;111(S1):24–32. 9. Toozs-Hobson P, Khullar V, Cardozo L. Three-dimensional ultrasound: a novel technique for investigating the urethral sphincter in the third trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001;17(5):421–424. 10. Robinson D, Toozs Hobson P, Cardozo L, Digesu GA. Correlating structure and function: three-dimensional ultrasound of the urethral sphincter.
The combination of true 4D (volume cineloop) capability and TUI or multislice imaging allows simultaneous observation of the effect of maneuvers at multiple different levels. 5 mm above, when using 4D View for analysis. There is one drawback of the current format of the reference screen which, for purposes of pelvic ﬂoor imaging, should be the midsagittal or A plane rather than the B or coronal plane. Hopefully, future versions of 4D View will allow a choice of reference planes. P. 7. 4) as demonstrated by TUI.
Bladder ﬁ lling, patient position, and catheterization all have been shown to inﬂuence measurements,1,3,4 and it can occasionally be quite difﬁcult to obtain an effective Valsalva maneuver, especially in nulliparous women. 3. 5 mm of BND, 60° of urethral rotation, opening of the retrovesical angle to 180°, and funneling (arrow). (From Dietz HP, Ultrasound Imaging of the pelvic floor: 2D aspects. P. Dietz Perhaps not surprisingly, publications to date have presented widely differing reference measurements in nulliparous women.