By Prof. Dr. Konrad Maurer, Dr. Thomas Dierks (auth.)
From its discovery in 1929 by means of Hans Berger till the past due Sixties, whilst sensory visible and auditory evoked potentials have been dis lined and have become well known, the EEG used to be an important approach to neurophysiological exam. W-ith the appearance of machine expertise within the Eighties, it turned attainable to devise the aptitude fields of the EEG onto types of the scalp. This plot ting of data as neuroimages the structural and useful suggestions of Cf, MRI, puppy and SPECf. The luck of this technique, which started within the early Nineteen Eighties, has resulted in the mind mapping of EEGs and EPs being more and more used for di agnosistic reasons in neurology, psychiatry and psychopharma cology. The pioneers of this system believed in it and have been dedicate ted to its good fortune. despite the fact that, many traditionalists felt that it gave no new info and so appeared the strategy with scepticism. a few came upon either the colored maps and the mapping strategy deceptive, which resulted in pointless clash among mappers and their chromophobic oponents. feelings have run so excessive that a few expert our bodies have justifiably followed directions and warned of the misuse of the method.
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Additional info for Atlas of Brain Mapping: Topographic Mapping of EEG and Evoked Potentials
Linear interpolatIon uses the three or four nearest electrodes, i. , a pixel value is treated as the mathematical average of the four nearest electrodes, inversely proportional to the distance from. each. A disadvantage is that maxima and minima of activity are always be located at electrode sites. Other interpolation methods, such as surface spline interpolation (Ashida et al. 1984~ Perrin et al. 1987), exhibit maxima or minima between electrodes and produce smoother maps, however, the computing time required is considerably longer.
In addition, the results of statistical procedures using, for example, Student's t test and z statistics can be visualized as maps. Figures in this atlas include amplitude maps, spectral amplitude maps (square roof of power in ~V), maps of EP amplitudes, and statistical maps comparing groups. 32 Data Acquisition and Signal Analysis IlV 100 Fig. 19. Conversion of EEG data from the time domain to the frequency and spatial domains. After FFT this and the following examples give the square root of power (~V) instead of power ~V2.
Other examples are shown in Figs. 36 and 37). Fig. 35 a-e. Topographic displays of hypnograms at different sleep stages which were evaluated according to rules of Rechtschaffen ,Illd Kales (1968). The 8 head formats demonstrate frequency features between 0 and 20 Hz. 5 Hz. b During stage I an attenuation of alpha and a slight increase of delta took place. c During stage II alpha was no longer present. Instead, delta and theta increased. 5 Hz with a maximum at Pz. d During stages III and IV (a differentiation between the two stages was topographically not possible) slow delta predominated with a maximum at Fz.