By Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, Alison Mack, David A. Relman, Eileen R. Choffnes
Years of utilizing, misusing, and overusing antibiotics and different antimicrobial medications has ended in the emergence of multidrug-resistant 'superbugs.' The IOM's discussion board on Microbial Threats held a public workshop April 6-7 to debate the character and assets of drug-resistant pathogens, the consequences for international health and wellbeing, and the ideas to reduce the present and destiny effect of those superbugs.
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Extra info for Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary
The United States has an effective model in Denmark to draw upon when it comes to protecting public health. , 2009). Ultimately, greater quantities of antimicrobial compounds in the environment are likely to cause greater harm. The extent of this harm remains to be determined, however, along with other potential outcomes of the Danish experiment, such as whether this attempt to reduce the non-therapeutic use of antimicrobials in food animals has resulted in fewer resistant bacterial infections in humans.
Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary 21 WORKSHOP OVERVIEW year (Resources for the Future, 2009). In Europe, the death toll from multi-drug resistant bacterial infections is believed to exceed 25,000 per year (ECDC and EMEA, 2009). Speaker Dominique Monnet, of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), presented preliminary results of a recent ECDC-led attempt to calculate the disease burden in Europe associated with the frequently diagnosed types of multi-drug resistant infections (see Table WO-1).
All rights reserved. Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary 24 Antibiotic Resistance TABLE WO-2 Major Antimicrobial Agent Classes Approved for NonTherapeutic Use in Animals Antimicrobial Class Species Growth Prophylaxis Promotion Aminoglycoside Beef cattle, goats, poultry, sheep, swine Yes No b-Lactam (penicillin) Beef cattle, dairy cows, fowl, poultry, sheep, swine Beef cattle, dairy cows, poultry, sheep, swine Beef cattle, fowl, goats, poultry, rabbits, sheep Poultry, swine Beef cattle, poultry, swine Fowl, poultry, swine Beef cattle, poultry, swine Beef cattle, poultry, swine Beef cattle, dairy cows, fowl, honey bees, poultry, sheep, swine Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Beef cattle, poultry, swine Swine Fowl, poultry Poultry, swine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No b-Lactam (cephalosporin) Ionophore Lincosamide Macrolide Polypeptide Streptogramin Sulfonamide Tetracycline Other Bambermycins Carbadox Novobiocin Spectinomycin SOURCE: GAO (1999).