By Imants Baruss, Stephen Vletas
Changes of attention is a fresh and richly analytic research into the character of cognitive fact. Imants Baruss explores numerous manifestations of awareness with rational and empirical rigor starting with extra traditional states corresponding to considering, napping, dreaming and carrying on with on into hypnosis, trance, psychedelic studies, transcendence, and reviews on the topic of dying. This complete evaluate of altered states examines cognizance from the physiological, cognitive, and experiential issues of view. Readers will achieve from this attractive textual content an enriched knowing of awareness, truth, and the clinical pastime.
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Extra resources for Alterations of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis for Social Scientists
There are no other referents of the word “self” in reality (cf. Flanagan, 1992; Natsoulas, 1983b). We can, of course, question such an interpretation and, indeed, one of the threads running through this book is concerned with the nature of the self. “Within each personal consciousness thought is always changing” (W. James, 1890/1983, p. 220). For James, “no state once gone can recur and be identical with what it was before” (W. James, 1890/1983, p. 224). The things that we think about may be similar to things we have thought about in the past, but the brain changes as a result of experience and hence is not the same at the time of a later event as it was at the time of an earlier one.
Daydreaming Styles When defined as stimulus-independent or task-irrelevant thoughts, using questionnaires that had been developed for that purpose, often given to college students, Singer and his colleagues found three different daydreaming styles. Those who score high on Positive–Constructive Daydreaming become absorbed in frequent, vivid, playful, and wish-fulfilling fantasies that are accepted, enjoyed, and used for problem solving. These are the happy daydreamers (Klinger, 1990; Singer & Antrobus, 1972; Zhiyan & Singer, 1997).
In other words, James’s introspection was retrospection, whereby a person examines her memory of that which has previously transpired (Lyons, 1986). James acknowledged that such a method was “difficult and fallible” but maintained that “the difficulty is simply that of all observation of whatever kind” (W. James, 1890/1983, p. 191, emphasis removed). There were other approaches to introspection at the time but, in psychology, the whole discussion about introspection was extinguished in the early part of the 20th century with the rise of behaviorism.