By Naruo Sasaki, Masaru Tsukada (auth.), Professor Toshio Sakurai, Professor Yousuke Watanabe (eds.)
This booklet covers numerous of crucial themes of present curiosity within the vanguard of scanning probe microscopy. those comprise a pragmatic concept of atom-resolving atomic strength microscopy (AFM), basics of MBE progress of III-V compound semiconductors and atomic manipulation for destiny single-electron devices.
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27. 17 nm. R is a resonance peak of the curve D ~ 9 This gives the analytical expression for the resonance curve illustrated in Fig. 27a. 30), it is easy to see that the maximum value of a is arnax = Ql in the case n - 1 + Eg(a, uo) = O. 31) where Vo = wo/27r. Thus the characteristic of the resonance curve strongly depends on the Q-value itself, whilst the frequency shift is determined by arnax = Ql, the value obtained by multiplying together the two parameters Q and I. 31) is expressed by an analytical method as follows: _ C1 9 (a, Uo ) - - 27ra 127r dV [zo(uo)d + acos1jJ] cos'f/ "l'd"l, 0 z as a direct integral of the tip-surface interaction force.
Tsukada, Surf. Sci. 287/288, 1036 (1993). 33. S. Watanabe, M. Aono and M. Tsukada, Ultramicroscopy 42-44, 105 (1992). 34. T. Uchiyama and M. Tsukada, Surf. Sci. Lett. 295, L1037 (1993); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12(3), 2205 (1994). 35. K. Hirose and M. Tsukada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 150 (1994). 36. S. Fujisawa, E. Kishi, Y. Sugawara and S. Morita, Tribo. Lett. 1, 121 (1995). 37. S. Fujisawa, E. Kishi, Y. Sugawara and S. Morita, Phys. Rev. B 52, 5302 (1995). 38. S. Morita, S. Fujisawa and Y. Sugawara, Surf.
Both surfaces have three As dimers per (2 x 4) unit cell and the local bonding environment of each atom in the two surfaces is essentially identical, as shown in Fig. 3. The factor which determines the relative stability of the (2 x 4)(3 and (32 surfaces is of great interest. Since the two surfaces satisfy the electron counting rule, each As dimer-atom is negatively charged and each threefoldcoordinated Ga atom is positively charged in the (2 x 4) unit cell. The electrostatic interactions between these charged atoms favor the (2 x 4)(32 phase .