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Extra info for Adiabatic shear localization : occurrence, theories and applications
Xu et al.  conducted dynamic compression tests in the Hopkinson bar assembly at room temperature and 77 K for the Al-alloy AA 8090. The alloy was tested in various heat-treatment conditions. It was found deformed as well as transformed (white etching) bands in all material conditions. Their occurrences depend on a critical strain and strain rate. Wei et al.  performed dynamic compression tests on a tungsten heavy metal alloy on a Hopkinson bar. They varied the specimen geometry with a classical cylindrical form, a conical form and a stepped form.
For a given depth of penetration, the shear band length increases with a decreasing backup hole diameter. 43). The flat-plate specimen was punched into the die, and the force was directly measured in the bar. The results led to critical shear strength to initiate adiabatic shear failures, shear deformation and punch velocity of the materials. 41 Indenter test: (A) before impact and (B) after impact, according to Chou et al. . 42 Transformation shear band (white etching band) in steel at indenter test, according to Rogers .
With increasing hardness and decreasing strain-hardening coefficient, the failure strain is decreased. Wang et al.  conducted dynamic compression tests in a Hopkinson bar on a titanium alloy and determined the dependence of test temperature on the critical failure strain and critical failure strain rate and combined these on an assessment diagram. Nguyen  conducted compression tests in SHPB on steel and titanium. He found a critical loading velocity below which no adiabatic shearing occurred.