By Bradley F. Podliska
Appearing by myself bargains an exceptional scientifically-based solution to the query of why presidents, despite political celebration, make judgements to take advantage of unilateral army strength. through the use of 3 easy methods to try U.S. concern habit for the reason that 1937, the writer of performing by myself makes the case that presidents are realists and make a unilateral determination according to a large army hole with an opponent, an opponent positioned within the Western hemisphere, and a countrywide safeguard probability.
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Additional info for Acting Alone: A Scientific Study of American Hegemony and Unilateral Use-of-Force Decision Making (Innovations in the Study of World Politics)
158 Cooperation is also another significant problem with multilateralism. Cooperation requires two states with divergent interests to choose one equilibrium outcome over the other. Once an equilibrium is established, there is no incentive to defect. 159 Establishing a military interoperability standard amongst military allies is an example of a coordination problem. Standards are often set at the domestic level, but coordination is required at the international level. 160 The increasing gap between American military technology and the technology of its allies exasperates this problem.
William R. Thompson, “Systemic Leadership, Evolutionary Processes, and International Relations Theory: The Unipolarity Question,” International Studies Review 8, no. 1 (March 2006): 14; Prestowitz, Rogue Nation, 27; Ikenberry, “Is American Multilateralism,” 538; Maynes, “Two Blasts,” 36. 34. Ikenberry, “Is American Multilateralism,” 537. 35. Clement, “The United States,” 399. 36. Edward N. Luttwak, “Toward a Post-Heroic Warfare,” Foreign Affairs 74, no. 3 (May—June 1995): 121; Lukasz Kamienski, “The RMA and War Powers,” Strategic Insight (September 2003): 2; Jia, “In Search of Absolute Security,” 204.
David Singer, The Correlates of War II (New York: Free Press, 1980); William Reed, “A Unified Model of Conflict Onset and Escalation: Capabilities, Democracy, and Status Quo Evaluations,” American Journal of Political Science 44, no. ” 41. The “series of steps” includes a decision to become involved in a crisis, which precedes the decision to use force. This has been a well-studied step and is not the focus of this book. For further explanation, see footnote 52 in Chapter 3. 42. : Princeton University Press, 2004), 20-21.