A User's Guide to Ellipsometry by Harland G. Tompkins

By Harland G. Tompkins

This textual content on optics for graduate scholars explains the right way to be certain fabric houses and parameters for inaccessible substrates and unknown motion pictures in addition to tips to degree tremendous skinny motion pictures. Its 14 case reviews illustrate techniques and make stronger purposes of ellipsometry — fairly when it comes to the semiconductor and to reviews concerning corrosion and oxide growth.
A User's consultant to Ellipsometry will let readers to maneuver past restricted turn-key purposes of ellipsometers. as well as its accomplished discussions of the size of movie thickness and optical constants in movie, it additionally considers the trajectories of the ellipsometric parameters Del and Psi and the way alterations in fabrics have an effect on parameters. This quantity additionally addresses using polysilicon, a cloth often hired within the microelectronics undefined, and the results of substrate roughness. 3 appendices supply necessary references.

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From Chapter 1, we know that the phase shift from a reflection from a dielectric is either zero if the angle of incidence is less than the Brewster angle or 180° if it is more than the Brewster angle. A value of either zero or 180° will cause sin D to be zero. From Equation 3, this implies that either n 3 or k3 will be zero and, of course, for dielectrics, k3 is zero. 747. A value of Psi = 0 will cause the right-hand side of Equation 3 to be zero. For dielectrics, Psi = 0 means that the component of light in the plane of incidence is zero and this occurs when the angle of incidence is at the Brewster angle, where the phase shift is indeterminate between zero and 180°.

When the analyzer is rotated about the light beam, the photomultiplier will detect a sinusoidally varying intensity. In general, the minima do not correspond to extinction of the light (null) and the intensity does not go to zero. When the polarizer is at the proper orientation so that the ellipticity is just canceled by the reflection, the light being detected will be linearly polarized and the maxima will be greatest and the minima will be zero (null). The proper orientation is t Source Photomultiplier Polarizer Quarter Wave Plate E Figure 2-10.

Chapter 3 Using Optical Parameters to Determine Material Properties The point was made in Chapter 1, and we repeat it here, that contrary to popular belief, ellipsometers do not measure the thickness of films. Ellipsometers measure the quantities Δ and Ψ. We use these quantities along with an assumed model to calculate material properties. The reliability of the calculated properties is only as good as the assumed model. If an improper model is assumed, although the values of Δ and Ψ are correct, the calculated quantities may well be meaningless.

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