By Crina Anastasescu, Susana Mihaiu, Silviu Preda, Maria Zaharescu
This booklet provides rainy chemical sol-gel and hydrothermal tools for 1D oxide nanostructure education. those tools characterize an enticing path to multifunctional nanomaterials synthesis, as they're flexible, low-cost and, therefore, applicable for acquiring a variety of oxide fabrics with adapted morphology and houses. 3 particular oxides (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO) are mentioned intimately with a view to illustrate the primary of the sol-gel and hydrothermal practise of 1D oxide nanostructures. different oxides synthesized through this technique also are in brief provided.
Throughout the booklet, the correlation among the tubular constitution and the physico-chemical houses of those fabrics is highlighted. 1D oxide nanostructures express attention-grabbing optical and electric homes, because of their limited morphology. furthermore, a well-defined geometry might be linked to chemically energetic species. for instance, the natural SiO2 nanotubes provided a moderate photocatalytic job, whereas the Pt-doped SiO2 tubular fabrics act as microreactors in catalytic reactions. in terms of titania and titanate nanotubes, huge particular floor quarter and pore quantity, ion-exchange skill, better mild absorption, and speedy electron-transport strength have attracted major study curiosity. The chemical and actual ameliorations (microwave assisted hydrothermal tools) mentioned right here enhance the formation kinetics of the nanotubes. The ZnO nanorods/tubes have been ready as random debris or as huge components of small, orientated 1D ZnO nanostructures on quite a few substrates. within the latter case a sol-gel layer is deposited at the substrate ahead of the hydrothermal guidance. utilizing acceptable dopants, coatings of ZnO nanorods with managed electric habit may be obtained.
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Additional info for 1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods
1 Effect of Acid Washing Initially, Kasuga et al.  considered the acid washing as one of the stages of the titania nanotube formation. However, subsequent studies have shown that the acid washing is an ion-exchange process. Even if the mechanism of nanotube formation is ambiguous, it was well established that the acid washing essentially influences the TiNTs characteristics only in determining the relative amount of Na and H atoms in the TiNTs structure. It is supposed that the acid-washed nanotubes contain more intercalated H2O in their structure than the nonacid-washed TiNTs and subsequently higher weight loss during the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) .
For obtaining 1D ZnO nanostructures, the hydrothermal/solvothermal method is the mostly used. As it is well known, hydrothermal synthesis includes the various techniques of crystallizing substances from high-temperature aqueous solutions at high vapor pressures in various pH medium. The influence of pH (by addition of NaOH) related to structural and thermodynamic considerations, as well as the influence of additives on the zinc oxide nanoparticles obtained by aqueous precipitation in mild hydrothermal conditions (90 C), was investigated by Aimable et al.
Although the first aqueous solution growth by hydrothermal method of oriented ZnO nanorods was reported already in 1990 , only more than 10 years later, Vayssieres et al. , ITO on polyester) substrate. Well-aligned single-crystalline hexagonal rods of typically 1 μm in diameter showing well- 52 3 Synthesis of Oxide Nanotubes/Nanorods by Hydrothermal Method defined crystallographic faces were grown along the  direction in a perpendicular fashion onto the substrates and were arranged in very large uniform arrays, no matter the type of substrate.